Salary or the total target compensation consists of fixed and variable proportions. Thus, determining the fixed and variable pay proportions helps in the pay-mix decision. Fixed pay is suitable to enable an employee to live comfortably. Performance-linked pay is an incentive to exceed expectations, performance standards, and goals.

This flexible component is usually paid when the company achieves certain milestones. The percentages in the two blocks vary with experience. The greater the experience, the higher the proportion of the flexible pay.

What would be the ideal salary mix in determining fixed to variable salaries?

Pay mix ranges usually are 50:40, 70:30 or even 75:25. This varies depending on the industry, product or service, business segment or department, employee’s position in the hierarchy, the complexity of the job and the company’s position in the business cycle. Increasing flexible pay portions helps control fixed costs while providing a competitive pay package. Flexible pay directly links pay to performance. Getting a fix on these factors helps employee retention, prevents attrition and motivates employees.

Employees in sales and production have a higher proportion of their salaries paid as performance-linked salaries. People in finance, administration, and Human Resources have a higher fixed component. All line function employees have a higher variable salary proportion than fixed pay. All support function employees have a higher fixed emolument compared to performance-linked income.

What is variable pay?

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It is a part of the compensation that is linked to an employee’s performance and achievement of the corporate goals. Performance-linked pay is in addition to the fixed salary payment received by the employee. There are predetermined conditions for achieving different levels of flexible pay. This is dependent on both the employee’s performance and the achievement of organisational objectives. The flexible pay scales depend on the employee’s skills, experience and company policies.

Performance-linked pay scales are a talent appreciation monitor and a great morale booster. It prevents stagnation and encourages employee growth. Variable salaries may be paid quarterly, half-yearly or annually.

How is performance-linked pay structured?

Incentives: Incentives can be structured when the employee attains specific targets within a defined period. Incentives could be a percentage, a flat figure, depending on sales volume or attendance metrics.  Incentives are common in customer-facing industries like finance or insurance.

Variable salaries are based on a company’s cost-benefit ratios, budget and employee recognition. Some companies also offer merchandise, employee discounts, travel allowances and holiday packages. Profit-sharing and management incentives are short-term incentives. Long-term incentives include employee stock option plans, promotions and partner tracks.

Bonuses: Bonus criteria is a surprise and not known in advance. Bonuses or the quantum of bonuses are an unexpected surprise for the employees. These include annual bonus, signing bonus, holiday bonus and profit-sharing bonus.

Recognition: Recognition involves cash or awards for employees who display exceptional performance. Training Programmes, sabbaticals, workshops and fellowships are other means of recognition. Employees may even be sent for professional skill development or higher education at the company’s expense if required.

Companies may also have specific policies to calculate variable compensation. In the annual budget, certain amounts are forecasted as performance-linked amounts, and they are recorded when the actual payments are made. It is a trial and error process and employees’ variable emoluments may evolve with the passage of time.

Fixed pay meaning

Fixed pay in cost-to-company refers to the fixed amount paid by the employer to the employee in exchange for services received in the form of a fixed salary. Fixed pay is the accrual salary mentioned in the salary slip, which includes the basic wage and multiple allowances. This indicates that the employee has worked on all business days of the month and taken sanctioned leave according to the company’s HR policies. 

Fixed salary includes basic pay, dear allowances, house rent allowance, conveyance allowance and other special allowances. Deductions are made from this salary towards Provident Fund contributions and Tax Deduction at Source. Creating reports, budgets and other tasks not directly related to boosting the company’s revenue are remunerated through fixed pay.

The employers’ pay scales and salary ranges recognise the level of education, knowledge, skill, and experience required to perform the job. Salaries for executive-level positions usually are higher compared to lower-level posts. 

Salaries for jobs are affected by additional demographic and market-led factors. The availability of jobs, people with the requisite skills and educational qualifications, CTC of the employee in his last job and pay scales at peer companies are considered while deciding the salary of an employee.

Determining the salary mix for different companies

A growing, entrepreneurial company with variable sales and income streams may have a higher level of variable pay with lower fixed base income levels. In boom phases, the company can ramp up the payments of incentives and bonuses to reward employees for their performance achievement, whereas in slack times, low fixed salary payments enable them to control their costs.

A more mature company with a steady stream of sales and profits without too much seasonality creeping in can tilt the mix in favour of fixed pay structures.  

Key takeaways 

Determining the proportions between fixed and variable salaries is company-specific. There cannot be a one-policy-fits-all situation. Variable payment is an evolutionary process refined by the company’s HR department over time. Complete transparency and accurate measurement of performance are the two cornerstones of evolving such a policy.

Employees who have a high degree of performance-linked pay may not be able to do accurate financial planning. Employees may also suffer burnout with overwork in case of high variable emoluments.

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Plum is a comprehensive employee benefits platform that provides group medical cover for start-ups, SMEs, and corporate organizations. We provide premium employee health insurance with no co-pay, no waiting periods, and no hidden terms and conditions.